Aims and Scope
Proper nutrition is one of the factors which is limiting onion production. Onion yield and quality is affected by fertilization of macro and micro nutrients. Mineral nutrients, Nitrogen, phosphorous and Potassium are macronutrients which significantly affect onion production. Nitrogen and phosphorous fertilization significantly affect growth, yield and quality of onion. The requirement of mineral fertilizer varies from place to place, depending on different factors in the growing areas. Effective use of N, P and K fertilizer depends on soil condition, irrigation system, climatic factors and management factors. In all different research reports, it is described that onion is a heavy feeder for N, P, K and the application of these mineral elements enhance production significantly. The quality of onion, physiology and production is highly limited by fertilization of N, P and K fertilizers. Therefore, in this review the effect of mineral nutrition on growth, physiology and yield of onion are discussed and examined in detail.
December 23, 2020
- December 22, 2020
- August 24, 2020
- June 16, 2020
- June 16, 2020
- June 01, 2020
- February 13, 2020
Use of Aqueous Two-Phase and Three-Phase Partitioning Systems for Purification of Lipase Obtained in Solid-State Fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizusValentina Dobreva, Boriana Zhekova, Georgi Dobrev
Purification of enzymes by conventional methods such as precipitation and chromatographic techniques is a costly and time-consuming procedure and may lead to low yields of enzyme activity. Alternative liquid-liquid extraction methods such as Aqueous Two-Phase Systems (ATPS) and Three Phase Partitioning (TPP) are characterized by the high enzyme yields and purification degree.
The objective of this study was the application of partitioning systems ATPS and TPP for purification of lipase produced in solid-state fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus.
ATPS and TPP were used for purification of lipase, obtained by solid state cultivation of Rhizopus arrhizus.
Lipase was isolated with PEG4000/potassium sodium tartrate ATPS and the effect of the system composition, including PEG 4000 and potassium sodium tartrate concentrations on lipase partitioning was studied. When using 30% PEG4000/21% potassium sodium tartrate, lipase was distributed in the top phase, and the highest recovery yield of 217% and purification fold of 6.1 were achieved. It was found that at PEG4000 concentration of or higher than 15%, the enzyme was present in the top polymer-rich phase with a partitioning yield of over 90%. Upon application of TPP for lipase isolation, the effect of t-butanol concentration, ammonium sulfate concentration and pH on enzyme partitioning was investigated. The highest lipase recovery yield of 71% and 19.1-fold purification were achieved in the interfacial phase in the presence of 30% ammonium sulfate saturation with 1.0:0.5 crude extract/t-butanol ratio at pH 7 in a single step. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymographic analysis showed significant purification of lipase by TPP and the presence of two multiple forms of the enzyme.
ATPS (PEG4000/ Potassium sodium tartrate) and TPP (1.0:0.5 crude extract/t-butanol ratio, 30% ammonium sulfate saturation, pH 7) proved to be rapid methods for the isolation and purification of lipase and they can be used in downstream processing for industrial preparation of the enzyme.
April 24, 2019
- August 30, 2018
- April 28, 2017
- August 11, 2017
- September 21, 2017