REVIEW ARTICLE

Current Status and Future of Nitrile Catalysis using Key Nitrilases Enzymes and their Biotechnological Impact

The Open Biotechnology Journal 27 Aug 2021 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874070702115010071

Abstract

Nitriles are organic compounds consisting of −C≡N group. They are frequently known to occur in nature and as intermediate by-products and waste products of various chemical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. They are also found in fruit pits, cabbage, cauliflower, and sprouts, which are released upon hydrolysis. Nitrile converting enzymes like nitrilases have been extracted from microorganisms and plants. Nitrilase-mediated biocatalysis reactions have continuously aroused widespread interest to scientists and entrepreneurs in organic synthesis. Nitrile converting biocatalysts (Nitrilases) are now of substantial industrial interest from the perspective of treating toxic nitrile and cyanide-containing compounds. Nitrile degrading enzymes generally consist of nitrilases and amidases. The aim of the current review is to summarize the recent advancements on regioselective nitrilases concerning their fundamental researches and their application in the synthesis of series of high-value fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The present review also focuses on the utility of nitrile converting enzyme, sources, properties, classification, structure, and applications as well.

Keywords: Nitrilase, Nitrile, Biocatalysis, Bioremediation, Green chemistry, Cyanide.
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