Molecular Identification of Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Production of Beninese Fermented Food Degue

Angel I. Angelov1, *, Galya Petrova2, Angel D. Angelov1, Petya Stefanova1, Innocent Y. Bokossa3, Célestin K. C. Tchekessi3, Maria L. Marco4, Velitchka Gotcheva1
1 Department of Biotechnology, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2 Primoris Bulgaria, 134 Bratia Bakston Str., Plovdiv 4004, Bulgaria
3 Laboratory of Microbiology and Food Technology, Department of Vegetable Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, 04BP 1107 Cotonou, Benin
4 Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 3939
Abstract HTML Views: 1475
PDF Downloads: 921
ePub Downloads: 554
Total Views/Downloads: 6889
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1904
Abstract HTML Views: 880
PDF Downloads: 532
ePub Downloads: 237
Total Views/Downloads: 3553

Creative Commons License
© 2017 Angelov et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biotechnology, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria, E-mail:



Traditional Beninese fermented food Degue is widely consumed in Benin and other countries in West Africa. It was originally made from milk and millet flour, but currently other cereals are used as well. Nowadays, Degue production occurs by spontaneous fermentation in individual households and information about the microorganisms involved is currently limited.


The microbiota of Degue from Benin has not been studied so far, but its growing production in the country sets a demand for revealing the biodiversity of the microbial population involved in the fermentation process in order to take future steps for development of industrial technology and offer products with improved quality and safety.


In the present study, yeast and lactic acid bacteria from raw materials for Degue production and from several Degue products were isolated and identified by molecular methods including RFLP and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA gene sequence analysis in yeasts, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in lactic acid bacteria.


Lactic acid bacteria isolates were assigned to eight species within the genera Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Weisella. Four species of yeasts were found in Degue: Cyberlyndnera fabianii, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Meyerozyma caribbica.


The microbial population revealed is unique to Beninese Degue and needs further characterization for development of defined starter cultures.

Keywords: Degue, Benin, Identification, Yeast, Lactic acid bacteria, Molecular methods.