Characteristics and Microbial Succession in Co-Composting of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Partially Treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Azhari Samsu Baharuddin1, 2, Nakamura Kazunori4, Suraini Abd-Aziz*, 3, Meisam Tabatabaei3, Nor’ Aini Abdul Rahman3, Mohd Ali Hassan3, Minato Wakisaka1, Kenji Sakai4, Yoshihito Shirai1
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2009
First Page: 87
Last Page: 95
Publisher ID: TOBIOTJ-3-87
Article History:Received Date: 30/01/2009
Revision Received Date: 16/06/2009
Acceptance Date: 01/07/2009
Electronic publication date: 15/9/2009
Collection year: 2009
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Microbial communities and cellulolytic enzymes activities were analyzed during the co-composting of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and partially treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) in pilot scale. The physicochemical parameters were also measured during the composting. The diversity of the bacterial community was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results indicated that the composting process of EFB with partially treated POME was dominated by uncultured bacteria species. The dominant bacterial group changed from the phylum proteobacteria in the thermophilic stage to the phylum chloroflexi in the maturing stage. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis exhibited the significant degradation of EFB structure during the composting process. The maximum cellulase activity for carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), filter paperase (FPase) and β-glucosidase were 13.6, 4.1 and 20.3 U/g of dry substrate, respectively at day 30 of composting. The results of this study significantly contributed to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in co-composting process in pilot scale.