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Antimicrobials Misuse/Overuse: Adverse Effect, Mechanism, Challenges and Strategies to Combat Resistance



Amit K. Mittal1, 2, *, Rohit Bhardwaj1, Priya Mishra3, Satyendra K. Rajput1, 2
1 Amity Institute of Pharmacy (AIP), Amity University-Uttar Pradesh, Sector-125, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Amity Institute of Indian System of Medicine (AIISM), Amity University-Uttar Pradesh, Sector-125, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Amity Institute of Neuropsychology and Neurosciences (AINN), Amity University-Uttar Pradesh, Sector-125, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India


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© 2020 Mittal et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Amity Institute of Pharmacy (AIP), Lab no-G-01, Block-L-1, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India -201313; Tel: 0120-4735655; E-mail: akmittal@amity.edu; amitkrbiotech@gmail.com


Abstract

Overuse and misuse of antibiotics are the first risk factors for the development of antibiotics resistance. Inadequate professional competence of health care physicians might worsen the complications associated with antibiotics resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a global issue; however, the epicenter of this misfortune is Asian regions due to the easy accessibility of the strongest antibiotics without prescriptions or diagnoses. High effectiveness and easy accessibility of antibiotics lead to overuse/misuse and encouraging bacteria to develop the resistance. The over-usage and mis-usage of antibiotics are antibiotic abuse, which increase the potentially serious impact on human health. Bestowing to WHO guidelines, the resistance has led to spread worldwide and classifying resistance is a serious health problem. Furthermore, resistance claims uncertainty to predict the future. This review summarizes the major antibiotics involved in drug resistance, mechanism, prescribed dosage with a disease condition, proposed policies and guidelines to combat antibiotic resistance associated problems.

Keywords: Antimicrobials misuse, Antibiotics, AMR, Bacteria, Antimicrobial resistance, MDR.