RESEARCH ARTICLE


Endocrine Disrupters and Food Safety



Alberto Mantovani*
Alberto Mantovani, Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161, Rome, Italy


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© Alberto Mantovani; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161, Rome, Italy; Tel: +39-06-4990-2815; Email: alberto.mantovani@iss.it


Abstract

The general population is constantly exposed to a mixture of endocrine disrupters (ED), mainly through the food chain.The dietary exposure pathways are diverse, since ED can: i) affect diet components most liable to environmental pollution (e.g., polychlorinated and polybrominated chemicals in lipid-rich foods); ii) be employed in food production (e.g., certain groups of agrochemicals); iii) be released from food contact materials or during food production processes (such as bisphenol A or phthalates); iv) last but not least, be naturally present in food: endocrine-active nutrients and bioactive substances, such as iodine and phytoestrogens, respectively, may elicit health risks when intakes are excessive. Main health concerns from dietary exposure to ED include the building-up of a pollutants body burden and the potential for additive, “cocktail” effects. The factors modulting exposure and susceptibility are considered, including different stages of life, the modulation of risks by dietary habits and the multiple, often inadequately understood, interactions between ED and food components.

Keywords: Menopausa, puberty, transplacental, tumorigenesis, xenoestrogen.